Cell Phone Invented

A 1980s cell phone

The Henry Ford museum has a documentary show that focuses on things from their collection. Marty Cooper headed up the team at Motorola that developed the cell phone. It was an invention that changed the behavior of the majority of people on the planet. On April 3, 1973 on a New York City street Cooper made the first cell phone — to his major competitor to tell them they’d succeeded.

Sarah S. Uthoff is a nationally known Laura Ingalls Wilder authority and has presented at five of the Wilder homesites, many times at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum, many conferences and numerous libraries, museums, and events around the Midwest. She is the main force behind Trundlebed Tales fighting to bring the History, Mystery, Magic, and Imagination of Laura Ingalls Wilder and other greats of children’s literature and history to life for a new generation. How can you help? Attend one of her programs, schedule one yourself, watch her videos, listen to her podcast,  look at her photos, and find her on Facebook , Twitter , LinkedIn , SlideShare, and Academia.edu . Professionally she is a reference librarian at Kirkwood Community College and former director of the Oxford (Iowa) Public Library.

 

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Pa’s Bell at Walnut Grove

Church bell in Belfry
Lutheran Church in Walnut Grove with Pa’s Bell

I recently reposted a video I had made of long-time Walnut Grove leader Shirley Knakmuhs ringing Pa’s church bell on Facebook.

From the TV Show

I got an interesting comment from “Nellie” from the TV show.

Quote from facebook December 15, 2018:

Alison Arngrim This real one is SO MUCH nicer than the fake one “Tinker Jones” “made” on the show! LOL. Ours was fiberglass and just went “thunk, thunk, thunk”.

Now I’ll “thunk, thunk, thunk,” every time I see that episode.

Walnut Grove Bell

The original Congregational Church building was torn down decades ago. Today the bell lives in the belfry of the English Lutheran Church in Walnut Grove. Unfortunately the design they chose for their belfry makes it difficult to see or photograph the bell well. The bell is rung every Sunday with the service alternating between 8:30 am and 10:30 am. During the Laura season the church is sometimes open or you’ll find someone who’ll let you in and you’ll hear the bell ring other times.

Red Church Bench in Museum
Congregational Church Bench

The Laura Ingalls Wilder Museum in Walnut Grove has a bench believed to be from that original Congregational Church. For a long time it was in the small church built on museum grounds, but today it’s inside the Laura building at the museum.

Church tower pulled up in air with rope at Walnut Grove Pageant
Pageant Chruch Building

You can also see a recreation of the building of the church of each night of the Walnut Grove pageant Fragments of a Dream. The town comes together and dramatically pulls up the bell tower.

Sarah S. Uthoff is a nationally known Laura Ingalls Wilder authority and has presented at five of the Wilder homesites, many times at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum, many conferences and numerous libraries, museums, and events around the Midwest. She is the main force behind Trundlebed Tales fighting to bring the History, Mystery, Magic, and Imagination of Laura Ingalls Wilder and other greats of children’s literature and history to life for a new generation. How can you help? Attend one of her programs, schedule one yourself, watch her videos, listen to her podcast, look at her photos, and find her on Facebook , Twitter , Google+LinkedIn , SlideShare, and Academia.edu . Professionally she is a reference librarian at Kirkwood Community College and former director of the Oxford (Iowa) Public Library.

Jean Coday Oral History Interview

Title Card for the VideoToday’s post is doing double duty. In the first half, Jean Coday has long been the driving force behind the Laura Ingalls Wilder/Rose Wilder Lane Home and Museum. Coday’s interview reveals how she got involved with the museum, what role she’s played, and a little bit about Laura’s life in Mansfield. In the second half, I’m going to talk about oral history as a research method. Not a lot of people have a very clear idea in their minds of what research looks like. I like to share examples to help people clarify it in their minds.

This is an excellent example of what an oral history interview is like. An important part of oral history is including indexes and transcripts. Below the video are my notes with general time codes.

 

Ozarks Voices: Jean Coday, Laura Ingalls Wilder Home Association, July 14, 2014

Ozark Voices is an oral history project undertaken by the Missouri State University Libraries. The interviewer is Tom Peters, Director of Library. It was shot in the director’s office at the Rocky Ridge complex. Coday also serves as President of HomePride bank in Mansfield.  Coday is from Ash Grove, Missouri.

Why did the Wilders settle in Mansfield? What happened to bring them specifically to Mansfield?

Mower goes by, watch things like that if you do oral history, it’s OK to cut and come back afterwards

August 22nd 1894 Wilders arrive

Cody never met Wilder, she was in Mansfield to visit her father-in-law before Laura died, but husband did, described about 5 min

How do people in town remember her? As farm woman who lived in community, everyone called her Mrs. Wilder

Saw as another farmer

Conversation from book about how got nicknames

Progressive farmers and laying hens

They’re trying to regrow orchard, have 25 trees, been a lot to take care of, have sketch by Laura showing how they planted them

Almanzo was a deliveryman

Almanzo wrote Fruit Growing Experiment Center, station told him to mix lye with oil to keep it on trees

Why Laura wrote the books

How did the books become famous

Why do people want to visit house

About 18 min They still get letters from children “Dear Laura how are you?” because they see her as a friend

Importance of family and love for each other

Did fame turn Laura’s head

Where original manuscripts are located

Mansfield owns 5 of the original “Little House” manuscripts and original Pioneer Girl

What was Rose’s role in books (on side of editor and book agent only)

Rose built Rock House and Laura and Manly lived there 9 years

Rose bringing electricity to farm, Rose brought out a single line phone, party lines were still the rule for decades after

Rose moved to New York City, Laura and Almanzo moved back to Rocky Ridge

About 25 min Irene Lichty and her role in forming association, Lichty’s father had been a Civil War Solider who married a much younger woman so Litchty’s mother was about Laura’s age. When Laura went to town she visited a couple of friends, including Litchy’s mother and the other aunt Betsy Pringle

Coday arrived in 1960, Litchy asked both Coday and her husband to serve on board

They had the house and 2 1/2 acres to start. Lichty was opening house bringing lunch with her, had bookshelf in bedroom with things to sell, by the time Codays came on realized needed to be more organized, they came 3 years after bought the farm

Litchy was primary guide in early years, board helped her in making repairs on home, reinforced it with cables throughout the upper level, they are shooting in Almanzo’s workshop which was briefly the bookstore and then the director’s office, Garage for cars taken down for museum,

Roger MacBride about 30 min

Both get MacBride’s relationship with Libertarian Party wrong, skates around Ed Friendly and Roger’s connection to show

Touch will controversy including court case on behalf of library, Peters sees in terms of intellectual property, Corday barely touches on it

About 35 minutes – People don’t consider Laura a Missouri author although Laura lived decades here. Twain is even though barely visited as an adult. Laura is a Missouri author by choice.

Laura going back to South Dakota and Rose’s feelings about Mansfield

Current fundraising projects – archives and museum buildings, adding trail

Have chicken coop, garden done by Baker Creek Seeds, hopes to return to original driveway and turn into a 1920s/1930s working farm,

About 42 min – worked on buying back land, now about 180 acres

Didn’t buy additional land until 1990 when bought the Rock House and 50 acres for 100,000. Paid that back and bought place across the way. Last buy was 87 acres that horseshoed around homesite. Still paying that off.

Hoping will increase visitation. Think will add 15% to visitation and hope that will encourage town to create more tourist supported businesses like hotels, bed and breakfasts, etc.

They still have contacts almost every week about someone wanting to do an article.

She re-reads the “Little House” series every year.

“She told a story in a way that is timeless and it was in a way that is so charming and so sweet that everybody feels better after they read them…You just feel like you’re part of the family. That’s how the children who read them or have them read to them feel.”

Note about Civil War women

Oral History

Some good points they demonstrate for oral history:

A good idea with oral history is to be part of a larger project like this one from Missouri State University Libraries. It makes it easier for people to find your efforts and helps guarantee that the work won’t disappear after you die.

Have a list of questions over subjects you think they’ll know about.

Try to make the subject comfortable.

Some points they can work on:

An important part of oral history is also making a transcript. While transcripts don’t always pass on the nuance of a recording, a print version makes it easier to scan to find and search and print formats are usually more stable than those of audio or video. YouTube does do an auto transcript, but I don’t see any attach transcript although they may have one separately.

You control your environment. People are going to be listening to this hopefully for decades. Pay attention to the sound. Get rid of background noises like lawn mowers by requesting they wait or waiting yourself. Have a good quality mic.

Learn more about Oral History:
http://www.trundlebedtales.com/beginning-oral-history.html

Sarah S. Uthoff is a nationally known Laura Ingalls Wilder authority and has presented at five of the Wilder homesites, many times at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum, many conferences and numerous libraries, museums, and events around the Midwest. She is the main force behind Trundlebed Tales fighting to bring the History, Mystery, Magic, and Imagination of Laura Ingalls Wilder and other greats of children’s literature and history to life for a new generation. How can you help? Attend one of her programs, schedule one yourself, watch her videos, listen to her podcast, look at her photos, and find her on Facebook , Twitter , Google+LinkedIn , SlideShare, and Academia.edu . Professionally she is a reference librarian at Kirkwood Community College and former director of the Oxford (Iowa) Public Library.

Introduction of Published Works Page

We’re introducing a new page that lists of works that I’ve had published. It’s not a complete list, but includes major works and some that are just favorites. I hope you enjoy taking a look. I’ve copied the text from the original posting here. I’m sure the page will continue to grow and change over the years.

Below is a partial list of the published works from the keyboard of Sarah S. Uthoff:

Uthoff, Sarah. “Library Explains How to Find Additional Resources Online.” Kirkwood Communique. 27 April 2018.
http://www.kirkwoodstudentmedia.com/news/view.php/1033836/Library-explains-how-to-find-additional-. Accessed 2 October 2018.

Uthoff, Sarah. “Museum Evaluation and Fromative Assessment.” ALHFAM Bulletin, 47.3. (Fall 2017): 13-15.
NOTE: ALHFAM stands for Association of Living History Farms and Museums, a professional international organization for people who do living history. They had a problem with a switch in editors and so this edition actually came out in July 2018.

Uthoff, Sarah and Susan Uthoff. “Museums and Food Allergies.” ALHFAM Bulletin, vol. 46, no. 4. Winter 2016, pp. 20-21. http://alhfam.org/museums-food-allergies
NOTE: ALHFAM stands for Association of Living History Farms and Museums, a professional international organization for people who do living history. They had a problem with a switch in editors and so this edition actually came out in August 2017.

Uthoff, Sarah. “About The Ingalls Family.” Little House on the Prairie. n.d. Web. 6 July 2016.
http://littlehouseontheprairie.com/about-the-ingalls-family/
(Note: This was published in June 2016, but not dated on page. )

“About the Ingalls Family.” Little House on the Prairie. (20 June 2016).

With a Committee. Demonstration Manual for Foodways Interpretation – ALHFAM 2016

Uthoff, Sarah. “Grown-Up Laura Ingalls Wilder Party.” Little House on the Prairie. n.d. Web. 3 February 2016.
http://littlehouseontheprairie.com/grown-up-laura-ingalls-wilder-party
(Note: This was published on February 3, 2016, but not dated on page. )

“In the Kitchen with Laura Ingalls Wilder.” Little House on the Prairie. (15 Sept. 2015)

Referenced in “Banned Book Week.” School Library Journal blog (26 Sept. 2013)

Referenced in “Laura Ingalls Wilder’s classic ‘Little House’ series still resonates years later.” Chicago Tribune (9 Aug. 2013).

Interviewed on Dakota Life for “Life on the Prairie” episode May 2013.

“Laura Ingalls Wilder: A Writer’s Life,” by Pamela Smith Hill. [Book Review] Western Historical Quarterly 40.1 (Spring 2009): 113.

“Laura Ingalls Wilder: A Writer’s Life (A Review).”Homesteader 6.2 (2007): 5.

“Letter to Laura.” [Essay] In Jack, Zachary Michael, ed. Letters to a Young Iowan. North Liberty, Iowa: Ice Cube Press, 2007.

“Do You Have an Electric Salad Bowl in Your Museum?” Thresholds in Education 32.3 (Fall 2006): 30-32.

“Twenty-five Years of the Little House Cookbook.The Homesteader (Winter 2006-2007): 3.

With Susan Uthoff. “Admission and Price Comparison 1972 and 2005.” MOMCC Magazine 26.3 (2005): 12-13.

“How to Cash in on a Quality Cookbook.” ALHFAM Bulletin 34.1 (2004): 7 – 9.

“Using LIW in the Classroom: Teachers Share Ideas in De Smet.” The Homesteader 2.2 (2003-2004): 4.

“Notes from Walnut Grove – 30 Years of Celebrating Laura.” The Homesteader 3.2 (2004-2005): 5.

“Collecting Our Past: Flax Machine, Wheel Spins Yarn of Simple Life” Cedar Rapids Gazette (8 May 2005): 2J. [NOTE: Credited to Johnson County Historical Society Staff]

“A Resource for Costuming 1900-1950.” [Book Review] Country School Association of America Newsletter.                 http://csaa.typepad.com/country_school_associatio/

“Ten Years of Celebrating Laura at the Hoover Presidential Library.” American Road: Newsletter of the Hoover Presidential Library Association 27.63 (2003): 15-16.

UPDATED: January 7, 2019

By Sarah S. Uthoff info@trundlebedtales.com

Sarah S. Uthoff is a nationally known Laura Ingalls Wilder authority and has presented at five of the Wilder homesites, many times at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum, many conferences and numerous libraries, museums, and events around the Midwest. She is the main force behind Trundlebed Tales fighting to bring the History, Mystery, Magic, and Imagination of Laura Ingalls Wilder and other greats of children’s literature and history to life for a new generation. How can you help? Attend one of her programs, schedule one yourself, watch her videos, listen to her podcast, look at her photos, and find her on Facebook , Twitter , Google+LinkedIn , SlideShare, and Academia.edu . Professionally she is a reference librarian at Kirkwood Community College and former director of the Oxford (Iowa) Public Library.

 

 

In the Kitchen With Laura Cambric Tea

Teapot of brewed tea on table in 19th century kitchen
Brewed Tea in Pot

History of Cambric Tea

Cambric Tea was a common drink in America during the 19th century, primarily for children. Cambric tea gave children just a taste of tea and made them feel like they were getting tea like the grown-ups.

As Laura described it, cambric tea was made with milk, hot water, and brewed tea. Most traditional recipes I found also included sugar, but neither Laura’s books nor Barbara Walker’s Little House Cookbook included it. I prefer it without, but you may like it. Adding sugar brings it closer to a tea based version of hot chocolate, only without the chocolate.

My version is based on the fact that most of the year both sugar and milk would be valuable commodities to be used sparingly. Milk was a seasonal food based on the cow having a calf and giving milk for it. After the Ingalls family left Wisconsin and its sources of maple sugar, sugar was no longer something that they could easily find or make. (Sugar CAN be created in the prairie/plains area by growing things like sugar beets or sorghum and processing them, but there is no indication that the Ingalls family did.) That meant they had to buy it. So I’m assuming both ingredients would be used as little as possible. My directions are without sugar and with limited milk. The idea is that you would be stretching milk and not putting in too much tea because back then people didn’t think the children should be drinking much tea and children not raised on tea don’t like a strong tea taste anyway. So I changed the proportions to reflect that.

Teacup of water with milk pouring
Pouring milk into cup with hot water

Recipe

The historic recipes I found were also mostly a list of directions. There is a recipe for cambric tea in the Little House Cookbook, but this is my own from having experimented it making it. You could make it by the pot, but there are advantages to making it by the cup. It doesn’t stand well and it’s so pretty to make it by the cup so each person can see the reactions as the ingredients mix. It makes a lovely pattern as you do it by the cup that you wouldn’t see in a pot unless you have a clear glass teapot.

Recipe Instructions

Brew fresh tea. I think plain tea is the most like the Ingalls would have had rather than a complicated blend. Brew the tea until it is dark. If you’re making a couple of cups, a cup of dark brewed tea will be enough. If you’re making a lot of cambric tea, expect to give seconds, or plan on giving straight tea as an option, go ahead and brew a whole pot.

You’ll also want a pot of hot water.

For each individual cup, fill the cup roughly ¾ full of hot water. You’ll want to leave a space between the top of the drink and the lip of the cup so take that into account.

Pour the milk into the hot water and watch it swirl until it mixes together. Add 1 Tbsp full of the brewed tea, stir, and serve hot.

Brewed Tea in Pot, Water and Milk in Teacup
Tea, Water, Milk

Differences

My version is different than Barbara Walker’s . In her version the water and milk was equally divided and she made a tea concentrate to use instead of standard brewed tea. This is a fun and easy Little House recipe to try. I think you’ll enjoy it.

Sarah Sue’s Cambric Tea

For 6 servings You’ll Need:

  • Hot water, at least 3 cups
  • Milk, approximately 1 ½ cups
  • Strong brewed black tea, 6 tablespoons

Directions:

Step 1: Heat up water to the temperature you want the tea.

Step 2: Fill each cup half full of hot water.

Step 3: Pour in a quarter cup of milk in each cup. Be sure to have whoever the cup is for come and look as you pour in the milk it swirls beautifully and is worth seeing in.

Step 4: Pour in a Tablespoon of the tea in each cup and stir.

Drink Me!

Drink it up while it’s hot! Unless they have been raised drinking tea, young kids are hesitant to drink straight tea as I’ve found out at many kids tea parties. I think they may like this though.

You’re Not a Brick

While we’re on the subject of tea, you will often see sutler’s (people who sell historic “props” for living history) selling bricks of tea. While these are often very beautiful and they were a thing, they weren’t a thing in America where leaf tea was always the rule from colonial times through today. Learn more about the history of tea in The Social History of Tea (2015 updated ed.) by Jane Pettigrew and Bruce Richardson.

Sarah S. Uthoff is a nationally known Laura Ingalls Wilder authority and has presented at five of the Wilder homesites, many times at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum, many conferences and numerous libraries, museums, and events around the Midwest. She is the main force behind Trundlebed Tales fighting to bring the History, Mystery, Magic, and Imagination of Laura Ingalls Wilder and other greats of children’s literature and history to life for a new generation. How can you help? Attend one of her programs, schedule one yourself, watch her videos, listen to her podcast, look at her photos, and find her on  Facebook , Twitter , Google+LinkedIn , SlideShare, and Academia.edu . Professionally she is a reference librarian at Kirkwood Community College and former director of the Oxford (Iowa) Public Library.

News on the Masters Hotel in Walnut Grove

Original Masters Hotel in Walnut Grove during June 2017
Original Masters Hotel in Walnut Grove during June 2017

A couple of years ago the Laura Ingalls Wilder Museum in Walnut Grove, Minnesota purchased the former Masters Hotel right across the street. This was the original masters Hotel that Laura talks about in Pioneer Girl before they move to Burr Oak, Iowa.

Looking in Through the Windows of the Walnut Grove Masters Hotel
Looking in Through the Windows of the Walnut Grove Masters Hotel in June 2017

It was purchased with the idea of restoring it, but once money was raised and the process begun it was determined the building was too far gone. They tore it down and decided to focus attention on the Master Store/Meeting Hall Building next door which it is believed Pa helped build.

Read more in this article by Kathleen Miller Brandt

http://www.ncppub.com/pages/?p=8470#more-8470http://www.ncppub.com/pages/?p=8470#more-8470

New Article

Brandt also shared with me another article and gave me permission to share it here:

Eleck Nelson Early settler of Walnut Grove

By Kathy Brandt

Some people spend their lives chasing fame, while others never have a clue that they will someday have a claim to fame. That was certainly true for Eleck Nelson, an early settler in the Walnut Grove area. Eleck Nelson was born on September 29, 1846 in Gran Kommune (Parish), Oppland fylke, Norway. This coming Saturday would have been his 172 birthday. He died on July 15, 1931, and he was the oldest resident as far as the number of years living in Walnut Grove. Eleck came to Redwood County in the 1870s, and according to information found on Ancestry.com,did not file for the patent on his homestead until 1881, because his intent to become a citizen was not filed until then.

In 1871, he married Olena. The family settled in North Hero Township, where at least several of their children were born. Their seven children were: Annie (the Anna Laura Ingalls Wilder mentioned) who was born in 1872 and died in 1890, Mary, Fred, Albert, Samuel, Julia and Hjelmer. Little did he know in 1874, when he stepped in to help new neighbors, Charles and Caroline Ingalls, that he, Olena and Annie would go down in history and would forever be famous in a book and a television series.

Eleck Nelson seems to have been a colorful character. According to family notes on Ancestry,com, he sold the farm in 1892 and purchased 80 acres just north of the Walnut Grove town site. He held many positions in the next several years. He owned a butcher shop, and, it is believed, employed his friend Charles Ingalls, who had returned to Walnut Grove following their time in Burr Oak, Iowa. He also opened a saloon, worked as a stock buyer and dealer, was a supervisor for North Hero Township, was a rural mail carrier, served on the Walnut Grove village board for ten years and served as the mayor for four years.

A big story is told that one night Eleck got extremely drunk. The city constable was going to shut down Nelson’s saloon and take Eleck to jail. But someone had warned Olena, so she came into town with the horse and wagon, got Eleck into the back of the wagon because he was too drunk to sit on the seat up front, and she took him home before the constable could get to the saloon. Olena died in 1921, and was buried close to daughter Annie on the eastern edge of the North Hero Township Cemetery. Sometime after Olena died, Eleck began to keep company with a “woman of ill repute” from Tracy. Things got so bad, that the village actually passed laws that mainly pertained to her and her presence in town. Finally, the sheriff was able to “run her out of town on a rail” and she apparently never came back.

Eleck Nelson died in 1931 and was buried beside his wife and daughter in the North Hero Township cemetery. Six years after his death, he was made famous when his old neighbor’s daughter, Laura Ingalls Wilder, immortalized some of his family in her book about their years in the Walnut Grove Area, On the Banks of Plum Creek. Eleck didn’t seek fame, and certainly didn’t expect to be made famous. His tombstone tells the story of a simple man, an immigrant, a pioneer, a farmer, a husband and a father. A simple man to the end.

Sarah S. Uthoff is a nationally known Laura Ingalls Wilder authority and has presented at five of the Wilder homesites, many times at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum, many conferences and numerous libraries, museums, and events around the Midwest. She is the main force behind Trundlebed Tales fighting to bring the History, Mystery, Magic, and Imagination of Laura Ingalls Wilder and other greats of children’s literature and history to life for a new generation. How can you help? Attend one of her programs, schedule one yourself, watch her videos, listen to her podcast, look at her photos, and find her on Facebook , Twitter , Google+LinkedIn , SlideShare, and Academia.edu . Professionally she is a reference librarian at Kirkwood Community College and former director of the Oxford (Iowa) Public Library.

In the Kitchen Pepper Rings

Close Up of hand slicing peppers
Slicing Peppers

A Cornucopia

During their years in Pepin, Wisconsin the Ingalls family had more and a bigger variety of food then they would until they became established in De Smet, South Dakota. Being settled they were able to have a larger variety of livestock and a garden. Living in the border area between woods, prairie, and lake, there was a much larger group of things they knew about to harvest from the wild. Many of which are described in Little House in the Big Woods including honey, molasses, fish, bear, deer, and forage for their pigs, etc.

Hand pointing to tab
These tabs go in holes to hold the window up.

The variety of food stuffs followed various methods of preservation. Laura describes the attic of the little house full of food preserved for the winter. One of the things she describes are dried peppers. There are different ways to dry them, but here is a beautiful thing you can dry like Laura.

Woman in Apron Threading Pepper
Sarah threading pepper slices on the string to hang between windows.

A Pepper String

In old houses windows often had a peg on each side in the frame of the window. These pegs were used to press in to keep the window raised. Another use was an excellent way to dry pepper rings. Not only is this method useful, multicolored pepper rings drying in your window are lovely and give the sense that you are actively using your kitchen. Let’s walk through how you do this in both an old-fashioned kitchen and in your kitchen.

What You Need:

Washed Peppers, you’ll need several if you want the string to appear full

Cutting Board

Sharp Knife

String

Suction Cups (if you don’t have old windows)

What You Need To Do

Step 1: Grow or buy bell peppers of various colors. – It doesn’t matter to the rings whether you buy them at a store or farmer’s market or grow them yourself.

Step 2: Wash and dry the papers and lay them on their side on a cutting board. With a sharp knife cut the peppers into rings, leaving the circle of the rings intact. The width of the pepper rings can vary, but the thinner you make them the easier it is to accidentally cut a ring in two. Somewhere between a quarter and a half inch wide.

Step 3: Tie one end of the string to a peg.

Step 4: String the rings along the string. Leave space between the rings according to how you think look best.

Step 5: Tie the other end of the string around the opposite peg pulling the string tight.

Pepper Rings in Window
Pepper Rings in Window

If You Have New Windows

If your window doesn’t have pegs, use two suction cups instead. Stick the suction cups on opposite sides of the window, one on the far right side and one on the far left side of the window. Follow the rest of the directions as is except substitute tying to the suction cups for the pegs.

Close Up Dried Peppers on a String
Suction Cups for Pepper Ring String

How Do You Use Them?

Dried Peppers will last for a long time. If you get them completely dry they can last almost forever. It can be used in various recipes, normally they have to be rehydrated first. A benefit of using them is often recipes may call for a smaller amount than a whole pepper and this allows you to easily use part of the pepper without wasting or scrambling to use the rest.

Sarah S. Uthoff is a nationally known Laura Ingalls Wilder authority and has presented at five of the Wilder homesites, many times at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum, many conferences and numerous libraries, museums, and events around the Midwest. She is the main force behind Trundlebed Tales fighting to bring the History, Mystery, Magic, and Imagination of Laura Ingalls Wilder and other greats of children’s literature and history to life for a new generation. How can you help? Attend one of her programs, schedule one yourself, watch her videos, listen to her podcast, look at her photos, and find her on Facebook , Twitter , Google+LinkedIn , SlideShare, and Academia.edu . Professionally she is a reference librarian at Kirkwood Community College and former director of the Oxford (Iowa) Public Library.